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The location of the reliefs up some 6-9 m (18-27 ft) on a cliff shows the importance of the one entombed there and the difficulty that the sculptor must have had in creating it. Reliefs are located to the left, right and above the entrance to the rock chamber tomb. The relief to the right is the dominant figure, the first in the procession, and is probably the one whose body was inside the tomb. He appears to be a local or provincial king. The king is wearing a striated or braided helmet/headdress, a garment like a robe or dress, a ribbon across the top of his shoes near the ankle, and carries a staff extending down to his feet. With his striated helmet, the king happens to resemble some of the Hittite reliefs from Alacahöyük that are located in the Anatolian Museum of Ankara or Median reliefs at the Achaemenid capital of Persepolis. Urartian relief headdresses traditionally have a more rectangular or boxy look, such as those at Van Museum. This king relief may have been simply an outlying regional variant from the Urartean reliefs that are known.
The figure to the left, possibly a priest or the king’s mate, is holding up a goat or mythological animal in the center relief to the god as a sacrifice for the king. The reliefs may be Urartean because there are other Urartean remains found in the region including cemeteries and ceramics, even close by at the bottom of the hill in the area named Sarigül.
Akkadian Seal (3rd Millennium BCE)
The Babylonian sun god of Justice, Shamash (Utu), rises from Mt. Mashu, flanked by the winged
fertility and war goddess Ishtar (Inanna), Queen of Heaven and Earth, and the watery god of Wisdom, Ea (Enki).
Above we have a very interesting Sumerian/ Akkadian seal. Some researchers claim the "cuneiform" inscription reads Adda the dubsar or scribe.The figures with pointed hats represent gods. Among the Mades and Mande the pointed hat represented a priest.
The figure with streams of water with fish flowing from his shoulder is Enki, god of the subterranean water. Enki protects the law and gives rulers their intelligence and craftsman abilities. Enki's leg is bear and probably represents leadership. Behind Enki is the two-faced vizier Usimu.
Next is Ishtar, she has wings and weapons placed on them. In front of Ishtar, between two peaks is the Sun god cutting his way through the mountain; from his shoulder we see three wavy lines emanating from it which represents zi 'the breath of life'. The god with a bow may represent Nuska the hunting god. Over the lion we find a box with a Sumerian inscription. In the right panel we see a capital 't' placed a top a triangle. The triangle represents the sign me which has a number of meanings including: divine law, oracle, universal law.
In the panel on the right we read from top to bottom me du; me ta pa and under these signs boot shaped sign with four lines on top tu dar lu . This panel reads: "Make the Me. Entrust the me (to this ) person to make the perfect libation". In the left panel we read from top to bottomni bu-tu. gi bu , "(In) Respect make the perfect libation. Act justly ( in its) distribution".
This discussion of Proto-Saharan writing systems make it clear that various ancient people in Sumer, the Saharan region and Egypt used a syllabic script. The inscriptions they left appear to have served talisman or amulet. . They were carved to illustrate the devotion of these people to their gods and goddess and are a great testimony to the great civilizations built by the Proto-Saharans.
Here is another interesting Sumerian seal. On this seal we see the Sun God between two peaks.
Paul Menansala has observered in relation to this figure the following:"The Sun God stands between the peaks of Mt. Mashu, located at the end of the earth to the East and through which the sun rises from the underworld."
Let's see what the inscription says. On the arms of the Sun god we see three wavy lines on each arm. The wavy lines mean zi There are Proto-Sumerian signs before the figure and behide the figure. In front of the Sun God we have the following: i ta mi "Emerge Deity to open [here] a phenomenal area of your power". Behind the figure we read the following: Mash pu gal "The Deity's perfect Diviner is great".
W. H. Shea. 1984. A comparison of narrative elements in ancient Mesopotamian creation-flood stories with Genesis 1-9. Origins 11:9-29.
E. A. Speiser. 1955. Akkadian myths and epics, In J. B. Pritchard (ed.), Ancient Near Eastern Texts Relating to the Old Testament, pp. 101-103. Princeton University Press, Princeton. For my detailed analysis of the Adapa Epic, see: W. H. Shea. 1977. Adam in ancient Mesopotamian traditions. Andrews University Seminary Studies 15:27-42.
Ibid., p. 39.
For a useful discussion of these wisemen and the sources in which they are referred to, see: W. W. Hallo, 1970, Antediluvian cities, Journal of Cuneiform Studies 23:62.
For a discussion of these textual variants, see Ibid., pp. 61-63.
A. L. Oppenheim. 1955. Babylonian and Akkadian historical texts. In ANET, pp. 265-266. See Note 1 for complete reference.
Hallo, "Antediluvian Cities," p. 62.
Ibid., p. 64.
Ibid., p. 65, n. 95.
E. A. Speiser. 1985. Genesis. Anchor Bible. 3rd ed. Vol. 1, p. 42. Doubleday, Garden City, New York.
W. H. Shea. 1984. A comparison of narrative elements in ancient Mesopotamian creation-flood stories with Genesis 1-9. Origins 11:25.
T. Jacobsen. 1981. The Eridu Genesis. Journal of Biblical Literature 100:513-529. For the discussion of man's nomadic conditions before he was granted the gift of kingship, see especially pp. 516-518.
Speiser, Genesis, p. 42.
W. G. Lambert and A. R. Millard. 1969. Atra-Hasis: the Babylonian story of the flood. Clarendon Press, Oxford, pp. 67, 71, and 73.